1467-68? - The Portuguese navigator
Pedro Álvares Cabral is born.
1487- The Portuguese navigator
Bartolomeu Dias discovers the Cape of Good Hope.
1494 - The Treaty of Tordesillas
1497- The Portuguese navigator
Vasco da Gama discovers an all-water route to India.
1499 - Vasco da Gama returns
to Portugal and inspires King Dom Manuel I to send the second
major expedition to India under the command of Pedro Álvares
1500 - The Portuguese navigator
Pedro Álvares Cabral leaves Portugal in order to take
the same route to India. During the trip he misses the way and
arrives on the Brazilian coast on April 22.
On April 23,
Nicolau Coelho, member of Cabrals fleet has the very first
contact with the native inhabitants of the discovered land.
On May 01 the
ceremony of possession of the discovered territory takes place.
A wooden cross is placed at the site.
On May 02 Cabrals
fleet continues its journey to India. Gaspar de Lemos sails for
Portugal in order to inform the King the discovery of the new
land. Bartolomeu Dias dies some days later near the Cape of Good
1501 - Cabral returns to
Portugal. Dom Manuel I, king of Portugal, sends an exploratory
expedition to Brazil, but the only valuable resource that is
found is the "pau-brasil", a kind of dyewood which
gave name to the country. During the expedition, Américo
Vespúcio discovers that Brazil is part of a continent
and not an island as they had previously thought.
1503 - A second exploratory
expedition is sent to Brazil. As no gold or precious stones are
found, Brazil still remains unoccupied. The French pillage the
territory. Portugal worries, but does not act.
Fernando de Noronha
initiates the "pau-brasil" trade.
1509 - Cabral leaves Lisbon.
He is forgotten.
1516 - The first expedition
to protect the coast is sent to Brazil under the command of Cristóvão
1526 - The second expedition
commanded by Cristóvão Jacques is sent.
Cabral dies probably
between 1520 and 1526.
1530 - Another exploratory
expedition is sent to the country by King Dom João III,
the son and successor of the former king. Under the command of
Martim Afonso de Sousa, 400 Portuguese sail for Brazil to explore
the coast, expel the French and begin the settlements.
1531 - Martim Afonso de Sousa
arrives in Brazil. In Bahia he meets the "Indian" Caramuru.
He sails southwards to Rio de Janeiro and then to the south.
1532 - The village of São
Vicente, the first formal Portuguese settlement is founded by
Martim Afonso de Sousa. He initiates the sugar cane plantations
in São Vicente.
1533 - Martim Afonso de Sousa
leaves the village of São Vicente under the administration
of his wife Ana Pimentel. He sails for Portugal from where he
later sails for India. He never returns to Brazil.
1534 - The captaincies system
is introduced. Brazil is divided in 15 parts from the Atlantic
coast to the limits of the Treaty of Tordesillas. The captaincies
are granted to some Portuguese with resources to administrate
them. The captaincy of Pernambuco is granted to Duarte Coelho,
who founds the cities of Olinda and Recife and introduces the
sugar cane plantations in the region. Martim Afonso de Sousa
is granted with the captaincy of São Vicente but never
1536 - Ana Pimentel, grants
Brás Cubas with a part of the captaincy of São
1545 - Brás Cubas
becomes the governor general of the captaincy of São Vicente,
which flourishes due to the good work initiated by Martim Afonso
in the village of São Vicente.
1548 - The captaincies system
fails. Only Pernambuco and São Vicente flourish. King
Dom João III buys the captaincy of Bahia for the Portuguese
1549 - The Portuguese administrator
Tomé de Sousa is sent to Brazil in order to administrate
the captaincy of Bahia. The city of Salvador is founded. The
sugar cane plantations are introduced in Bahia by the governor
general Tomé de Sousa.
The first Jesuit
mission sent to Brazil arrives in Bahia, led by the Portuguese
Jesuit missionary Father Manuel da Nóbrega.
The African slave
trade is allowed. Tomé de Sousa searches the south for
1550 - The African slave
trade is introduced in Brazil to substitute the "Indian"
1552 - Dom Pero Fernandes
Sardinha becomes first bishop of Brazil.
1553 - Arrival of the second
governor general of Brazil, Duarte da Costa, and Father José
de Anchieta, who goes to São Vicente after his arrival
in Bahia. In São Vicente he participates in the foundation
of the village of São Paulo.
1555 - Rio de Janeiro, present
Guanabara Bay is invaded by the French led by Nicolas Durand
de Villegaignon and settle on an island named Sirijipe (Serigipe),
later Villegaignon island.
1556 - Dom Pero Fernandes
Sardinha is captured and eaten by cannibal "Indians".
1557 - The second governor
general Duarte da Costa dies.
1558 - Mem de Sá is
sent to Brazil to substitute Duarte da Costa.
1560 - Mem de Sá,
Brazil's third governor general, initiates a battle with the
1565 - Estácio de
Sá, his nephew, arrives in Rio de Janeiro, present Praia
Vermelha located in the Guanabara Bay and founds near the Sugar
Loaf mountain the city of São Sebastião, later
renamed city of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro,
the present city of Rio de Janeiro, on March 1.
1567 - Estácio and
Mem de Sá fight against the French soldiers, who are finally
expelled. Estácio de Sá dies. Mem de Sá
transfers the city of São Sebastião to another
1570 - Father Manuel da Nóbrega
dies. Mem de Sá asks the king to send a new governor general
to Brazil. Luís de Vasconcelos is sent, but dies during
1572 - Mem de Sá dies.
Brazil has two governors general who substitute Mem de Sá:
Dom Luís de Brito, who rules the south and Dom Antônio
Salema, who rules the north.
1580 - Spanish kings rule
1581 - The "bandeirantes"
search the territory for gold.
1597 - Father José
de Anchieta dies in Ritiba, present city of Anchieta.
1605 - The "Indians"
are proclaimed free.
1612 - The French invade
1615 - The French are expelled
1624 - Bahia is invaded and
occupied by the Dutch.
1625 - The Dutch are expelled
1630 - A fleet sent out by
the Dutch West India Company captures Olinda and Recife, on the
coast of Pernambuco.
The number of
African slaves in the "Quilombo dos Palmares" increase.
1637 - The Company sends
Johan Maurits von Nassau to be the governor general of Pernambuco.
1640 - The Jesuits are expelled
from São Paulo for being against "Indian" slavery.
End of the Spanish
empire in Portugal. Portuguese kings rule again.
1641 - The Dutch invade the
state of Maranhão.
1644 - Johan Maurits von
Nassau resigns and returns to the Netherlands. The Dutch are
expelled from Maranhão.
1648 - On April 19, Dutch
soldiers fight against the Portuguese and Brazilian soldiers
near the Guararapes mount, in Pernambuco.
1649 - On February 19, they
all fight again near the same mount. These two battles are known
as The Battles of the Guararapes.
1653 - The Jesuits return
to São Paulo.
1654 - The Dutch are finally
expelled from Brazil.
1670 - The "Quilombo
dos Palmares" reach a population around 50.000 refugees.
Zumbi dos Palmares is their great leader.
1695 - The "bandeirantes"
find gold in Minas Gerais. Palmares falls. Zumbi's head is cut
1727 - Coffee is introduced
in Brazil by Franciso de Melo Palheta.
1729 - Diamonds are found
in Minas Gerais.
1759 - The Portuguese minister
Marques de Pombal expels the Jesuits from Brazil.
1763 - The capital of Brazil
is transferred from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro due to its better
localization in relation to the region of the mines that should
be protected to avoid foreign invasions.
1769 - The cotton plantations
begin to grow in Maranhão.
1792 - Joaquim José
da Silva Xavier, known as Tiradentes, is hanged for leading a
movement for the separation of Brazil from Portugal. The other
members of the movement are arrested.
1807 - Napoleon's troops
invade Lisbon in November. One day before the invasion, the prince
regent Dom João sails for Rio de Janeiro accompanied by
the Royal Family.
1808 - The Portuguese Royal
Family arrives in Rio de Janeiro on March 7. The Brazilian ports
are opened to direct trade with all friendly nations.
1815 - King Dom João
VI raises Brazil to the status of Kingdom. Brazil is now known
as United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and Algarve.
1816 - Queen Dona Maria I
dies in Rio de Janeiro and her son, the Prince Regent Dom João
becomes King Dom João VI. He introduces the French Artistic
Mission in Rio de Janeiro.
1820 - Revolutions in Lisbon
and O Porto are the crucial issue for the King's return to Portugal.
1821 - King Dom João
VI leaves Brazil and sails for Lisbon. His son, the prince regent
Dom Pedro stays in Brazil. The Oriental part of Uruguay is incorporated
to Brazil under the name of Cisplatine Province.
1822 - On January 9, Dom
Pedro makes a speech that becomes known as the "Fico"
(I stay). Disobeying the Portuguese orders demanding his return
to Lisbon, he decides to stay in Brazil.
7, supported by the Brazilian José Bonifácio de
Andrada e Silva, one of his advisers, Dom Pedro proclaims the
independence of Brazil in São Paulo.
On October 12,
Dom Pedro returns to Rio de Janeiro and is proclaimed the first
emperor of Brazil and named Dom Pedro I.
On December 1,
Dom Pedro I is crowned.
1823 - José Bonifácio
is sent into exile.
1824 - Dom Pedro I promulgates
the first constitution.
1825 - Great Britain and
Portugal recognize Brazil's independence.
1828 - Argentina and Brazil
agree to the creation of Uruguay as an independent nation, thus
ending the war between the two countries.
1829 - José Bonifácio
de Andrada e Silva is allowed to return to Brazil.
1831 - Dom Pedro I abdicates
the throne and returns to Portugal. The prince Dom Pedro de Alcântara,
at 5 years of age, is the regent. The Triple Regency Period begins.
José Bonifácio is named Dom Pedro de Alcântara's
tutor. Three regents rule in the place of the young emperor,
who is only 5 years old.
1833 - José Bonifácio
is substituted by Manuel Inácio de Andrade Souto Maior,
who becomes the new the prince regent's tutor.
1834 - The Triple Regency
is substituted by a one-man-regency. Dom Pedro I dies in Portugal.
1840 - The regents fail in
dealing with a series of revolts that had been occurring in Brazil
since after the independence was proclaimed. Dom Pedro de Alcântara
is the last hope. On July 23, he is emancipated.
1841 - Dom Pedro de Alcântara
is crowned emperor on July 18. He is named Dom Pedro II.
1850 - The Euzébio
de Queiroz Law prohibits slave trade in Brazil.
1864 - Brazil, Uruguay and
Argentina fight against Paraguay in the Triple Alliance War,
or Paraguay War.
1870 - The bloody Paraguay
1871 - The Free Womb Law
states that all babies born of slave mothers from 1871 onwards
would be free.
1873 - The number of Italian
immigrants arriving begins to surpass the number of Portuguese.
1885 - With the Saraiva Cotegipe
Law, all 65-year-old slave and elder than 65 are set free.
1888 - On May 13, with the
emperor away in Europe, Princess Isabel acting as regent, signs
the Golden Law abolishing slavery in Brazil.
1889 - On November 15, a
military coup led by Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca puts and end
to the monarchy in Brazil and establishes the republic. The emperor
and his family go into exile in Europe. A temporary government
is created and Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca is its chief.
1891 - In February, Marshal
Deodoro da Fonseca is elected by the Congress the first president
of Brazil. In November he resigns. Marshal Floriano Peixoto takes
1892 - Dom Pedro II dies
1894 - Prudente de Morais
is elected president. He is the first civilian president of Brazil.
For a long period the power will remain in the hands of "coffee"
presidents from Minas Gerais and São Paulo, owners of
wealthy coffee plantations.
1898 - Manuel Ferraz de Campos
Sales is the new president.
1902 - Francisco de Paula
Rodrigues Alves succeeds Campos Sales.
1906 - Afonso Augusto Moreira
Pena is elected new President. Vice-President Nilo Peçanha
takes office after his death.
1910 - Marshal Hermes Rodrigues
da Fonseca is elected. "Indian" Protection Service
1914 - Wenceslau Brás
Pereira Gomes becomes President.
1918 - Francisco de Paula
Rodrigues Alves is elected but dies before taking office. Vice-President
Delfim Moreira da Costa Ribeiro succeeds the former president.
1919 - Epitácio da
Silva Pessoa is elected the new President.
1922 - Arthur da Silva Bernardes
1926 - Washington Luís
Pereira de Souza succeeds Arthur Bernardes.
1930 - A military revolution
deposes Washington Luís and takes Getúlio Vargas
1945 - Getúlio Vargas
is deposed. Minister José Linhares takes office.
1946 - General Eurico Gaspar
Dutra is elected and takes office.
1951 - Getúlio Dorneles
Vargas is president again.
1954 - Getúlio Dorneles
Vargas commits suicide. Vice-President João Café
Filho takes office.
1955 - João Café
Filho's health does not allow him to continue. He is substituted
by Carlos Luz until Vice-President Nereu de Oliveira Ramos takes
1956 - Juscelino Kubitscheck
1961 - Jânio da Silva
Quadros succeeds JK, but resigns less than 7 months in power.
Vice-President João Belchior Marques Goulart takes office.
1964 - João Belchior
Marques Goulart is deposed. Pascoal Ranieri Mazzili takes office
temporarily. Marshal Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco is elected
by the Congress and takes office.
1967 - Marshal Arthur da
Costa e Silva is elected by the Congress.
1969 - Military ministers
take office after President Costa e Silva is declared ill (Augusto
Rademacker, Márcio de Souza Mello and Aurélio Lyra
Tavares). General Emílio Garrastazu Médici, elected
by the Congress, takes office.
1974 - General Ernesto Geisel
is the new president elected by the Congress.
1979 - Another president
elected by the Congress takes office: João Baptista de
1985 - Tancredo Neves is
elected president but is taken to hospital one day before taking
office. Although elected by the Congress, he is acclaimed by
the population. Vice-President José Sarney becomes president
after Tancredo's death five weeks later.
1989 - A new president is
elected by the people for the first time after a period of almost
30 years: Fernando Collor de Melo.
1990 - President Collor takes
office. The economic situation of Brazil gets worse.
1992 - Brazilians revolt
against Collor and launch a movement for his impeachment. The
House of Deputies vote for the impeachment. Two hours later Collor
resigns. Vice-President Itamar Franco takes office.
1995 - Fernando Henrique
Cardoso, finance minister responsible for President Franco's
economic plan, takes office. He issues a new currency in Brazil:
1998 - Fernando Henrique
Cardoso is re-elected.
2000 - Brazil celebrates
500 years of its discovery on April 22.
2002 - Brazilian people vote
to elect the new president. Luís Inácio Lula da
Silva wins the elections.
2006 - President Luís
Inácio Lula da Silva is re-elected.