* Irene's Country Corner * - Brasil - Chronological Events



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 Chronological Events


1467-68? - The Portuguese navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral is born.

1487- The Portuguese navigator Bartolomeu Dias discovers the Cape of Good Hope.

1494 - The Treaty of Tordesillas is signed.

1497- The Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama discovers an all-water route to India.

1499 - Vasco da Gama returns to Portugal and inspires King Dom Manuel I to send the second major expedition to India under the command of Pedro Álvares Cabral.

1500 - The Portuguese navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral leaves Portugal in order to take the same route to India. During the trip he misses the way and arrives on the Brazilian coast on April 22.

On April 23, Nicolau Coelho, member of Cabral’s fleet has the very first contact with the native inhabitants of the discovered land.

On May 01 the ceremony of possession of the discovered territory takes place. A wooden cross is placed at the site.

On May 02 Cabral’s fleet continues its journey to India. Gaspar de Lemos sails for Portugal in order to inform the King the discovery of the new land. Bartolomeu Dias dies some days later near the Cape of Good Hope.

1501 - Cabral returns to Portugal. Dom Manuel I, king of Portugal, sends an exploratory expedition to Brazil, but the only valuable resource that is found is the "pau-brasil", a kind of dyewood which gave name to the country. During the expedition, Américo Vespúcio discovers that Brazil is part of a continent and not an island as they had previously thought.

1503 - A second exploratory expedition is sent to Brazil. As no gold or precious stones are found, Brazil still remains unoccupied. The French pillage the territory. Portugal worries, but does not act.

Fernando de Noronha initiates the "pau-brasil" trade.

1509 - Cabral leaves Lisbon. He is forgotten.

1516 - The first expedition to protect the coast is sent to Brazil under the command of Cristóvão Jacques.

1526 - The second expedition commanded by Cristóvão Jacques is sent.

Cabral dies probably between 1520 and 1526.

1530 - Another exploratory expedition is sent to the country by King Dom João III, the son and successor of the former king. Under the command of Martim Afonso de Sousa, 400 Portuguese sail for Brazil to explore the coast, expel the French and begin the settlements.

1531 - Martim Afonso de Sousa arrives in Brazil. In Bahia he meets the "Indian" Caramuru. He sails southwards to Rio de Janeiro and then to the south.

1532 - The village of São Vicente, the first formal Portuguese settlement is founded by Martim Afonso de Sousa. He initiates the sugar cane plantations in São Vicente.

1533 - Martim Afonso de Sousa leaves the village of São Vicente under the administration of his wife Ana Pimentel. He sails for Portugal from where he later sails for India. He never returns to Brazil.

1534 - The captaincies system is introduced. Brazil is divided in 15 parts from the Atlantic coast to the limits of the Treaty of Tordesillas. The captaincies are granted to some Portuguese with resources to administrate them. The captaincy of Pernambuco is granted to Duarte Coelho, who founds the cities of Olinda and Recife and introduces the sugar cane plantations in the region. Martim Afonso de Sousa is granted with the captaincy of São Vicente but never visits it.

1536 - Ana Pimentel, grants Brás Cubas with a part of the captaincy of São Vicente.

1545 - Brás Cubas becomes the governor general of the captaincy of São Vicente, which flourishes due to the good work initiated by Martim Afonso in the village of São Vicente.

1548 - The captaincies system fails. Only Pernambuco and São Vicente flourish. King Dom João III buys the captaincy of Bahia for the Portuguese Crown.

1549 - The Portuguese administrator Tomé de Sousa is sent to Brazil in order to administrate the captaincy of Bahia. The city of Salvador is founded. The sugar cane plantations are introduced in Bahia by the governor general Tomé de Sousa.

The first Jesuit mission sent to Brazil arrives in Bahia, led by the Portuguese Jesuit missionary Father Manuel da Nóbrega.

The African slave trade is allowed. Tomé de Sousa searches the south for gold.

1550 - The African slave trade is introduced in Brazil to substitute the "Indian" slave labor.

1552 - Dom Pero Fernandes Sardinha becomes first bishop of Brazil.

1553 - Arrival of the second governor general of Brazil, Duarte da Costa, and Father José de Anchieta, who goes to São Vicente after his arrival in Bahia. In São Vicente he participates in the foundation of the village of São Paulo.

1555 - Rio de Janeiro, present Guanabara Bay is invaded by the French led by Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon and settle on an island named Sirijipe (Serigipe), later Villegaignon island.

1556 - Dom Pero Fernandes Sardinha is captured and eaten by cannibal "Indians".

1557 - The second governor general Duarte da Costa dies.

1558 - Mem de Sá is sent to Brazil to substitute Duarte da Costa.

1560 - Mem de Sá, Brazil's third governor general, initiates a battle with the French.

1565 - Estácio de Sá, his nephew, arrives in Rio de Janeiro, present Praia Vermelha located in the Guanabara Bay and founds near the Sugar Loaf mountain the city of São Sebastião, later renamed city of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, the present city of Rio de Janeiro, on March 1.

1567 - Estácio and Mem de Sá fight against the French soldiers, who are finally expelled. Estácio de Sá dies. Mem de Sá transfers the city of São Sebastião to another site.

1570 - Father Manuel da Nóbrega dies. Mem de Sá asks the king to send a new governor general to Brazil. Luís de Vasconcelos is sent, but dies during the trip.

1572 - Mem de Sá dies. Brazil has two governors general who substitute Mem de Sá: Dom Luís de Brito, who rules the south and Dom Antônio Salema, who rules the north.

1580 - Spanish kings rule Portugal.

1581 - The "bandeirantes" search the territory for gold.

1597 - Father José de Anchieta dies in Ritiba, present city of Anchieta.

1605 - The "Indians" are proclaimed free.

1612 - The French invade Maranhão.

1615 - The French are expelled from Maranhão.

1624 - Bahia is invaded and occupied by the Dutch.

1625 - The Dutch are expelled from Bahia.

1630 - A fleet sent out by the Dutch West India Company captures Olinda and Recife, on the coast of Pernambuco.

The number of African slaves in the "Quilombo dos Palmares" increase.

1637 - The Company sends Johan Maurits von Nassau to be the governor general of Pernambuco.

1640 - The Jesuits are expelled from São Paulo for being against "Indian" slavery.

End of the Spanish empire in Portugal. Portuguese kings rule again.

1641 - The Dutch invade the state of Maranhão.

1644 - Johan Maurits von Nassau resigns and returns to the Netherlands. The Dutch are expelled from Maranhão.

1648 - On April 19, Dutch soldiers fight against the Portuguese and Brazilian soldiers near the Guararapes mount, in Pernambuco.

1649 - On February 19, they all fight again near the same mount. These two battles are known as The Battles of the Guararapes.

1653 - The Jesuits return to São Paulo.

1654 - The Dutch are finally expelled from Brazil.

1670 - The "Quilombo dos Palmares" reach a population around 50.000 refugees. Zumbi dos Palmares is their great leader.

1695 - The "bandeirantes" find gold in Minas Gerais. Palmares falls. Zumbi's head is cut off.

1727 - Coffee is introduced in Brazil by Franciso de Melo Palheta.

1729 - Diamonds are found in Minas Gerais.

1759 - The Portuguese minister Marques de Pombal expels the Jesuits from Brazil.

1763 - The capital of Brazil is transferred from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro due to its better localization in relation to the region of the mines that should be protected to avoid foreign invasions.

1769 - The cotton plantations begin to grow in Maranhão.

1792 - Joaquim José da Silva Xavier, known as Tiradentes, is hanged for leading a movement for the separation of Brazil from Portugal. The other members of the movement are arrested.

1807 - Napoleon's troops invade Lisbon in November. One day before the invasion, the prince regent Dom João sails for Rio de Janeiro accompanied by the Royal Family.

1808 - The Portuguese Royal Family arrives in Rio de Janeiro on March 7. The Brazilian ports are opened to direct trade with all friendly nations.

1815 - King Dom João VI raises Brazil to the status of Kingdom. Brazil is now known as United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and Algarve.

1816 - Queen Dona Maria I dies in Rio de Janeiro and her son, the Prince Regent Dom João becomes King Dom João VI. He introduces the French Artistic Mission in Rio de Janeiro.

1820 - Revolutions in Lisbon and O Porto are the crucial issue for the King's return to Portugal.

1821 - King Dom João VI leaves Brazil and sails for Lisbon. His son, the prince regent Dom Pedro stays in Brazil. The Oriental part of Uruguay is incorporated to Brazil under the name of Cisplatine Province.

1822 - On January 9, Dom Pedro makes a speech that becomes known as the "Fico" (I stay). Disobeying the Portuguese orders demanding his return to Lisbon, he decides to stay in Brazil.

On September 7, supported by the Brazilian José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva, one of his advisers, Dom Pedro proclaims the independence of Brazil in São Paulo.

On October 12, Dom Pedro returns to Rio de Janeiro and is proclaimed the first emperor of Brazil and named Dom Pedro I.

On December 1, Dom Pedro I is crowned.

1823 - José Bonifácio is sent into exile.

1824 - Dom Pedro I promulgates the first constitution.

1825 - Great Britain and Portugal recognize Brazil's independence.

1828 - Argentina and Brazil agree to the creation of Uruguay as an independent nation, thus ending the war between the two countries.

1829 - José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva is allowed to return to Brazil.

1831 - Dom Pedro I abdicates the throne and returns to Portugal. The prince Dom Pedro de Alcântara, at 5 years of age, is the regent. The Triple Regency Period begins. José Bonifácio is named Dom Pedro de Alcântara's tutor. Three regents rule in the place of the young emperor, who is only 5 years old.

1833 - José Bonifácio is substituted by Manuel Inácio de Andrade Souto Maior, who becomes the new the prince regent's tutor.

1834 - The Triple Regency is substituted by a one-man-regency. Dom Pedro I dies in Portugal.

1840 - The regents fail in dealing with a series of revolts that had been occurring in Brazil since after the independence was proclaimed. Dom Pedro de Alcântara is the last hope. On July 23, he is emancipated.

1841 - Dom Pedro de Alcântara is crowned emperor on July 18. He is named Dom Pedro II.

1850 - The Euzébio de Queiroz Law prohibits slave trade in Brazil.

1864 - Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina fight against Paraguay in the Triple Alliance War, or Paraguay War.

1870 - The bloody Paraguay War ends.

1871 - The Free Womb Law states that all babies born of slave mothers from 1871 onwards would be free.

1873 - The number of Italian immigrants arriving begins to surpass the number of Portuguese.

1885 - With the Saraiva Cotegipe Law, all 65-year-old slave and elder than 65 are set free.

1888 - On May 13, with the emperor away in Europe, Princess Isabel acting as regent, signs the Golden Law abolishing slavery in Brazil.

1889 - On November 15, a military coup led by Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca puts and end to the monarchy in Brazil and establishes the republic. The emperor and his family go into exile in Europe. A temporary government is created and Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca is its chief.

1891 - In February, Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca is elected by the Congress the first president of Brazil. In November he resigns. Marshal Floriano Peixoto takes office.

1892 - Dom Pedro II dies in Paris.

1894 - Prudente de Morais is elected president. He is the first civilian president of Brazil. For a long period the power will remain in the hands of "coffee" presidents from Minas Gerais and São Paulo, owners of wealthy coffee plantations.

1898 - Manuel Ferraz de Campos Sales is the new president.

1902 - Francisco de Paula Rodrigues Alves succeeds Campos Sales.

1906 - Afonso Augusto Moreira Pena is elected new President. Vice-President Nilo Peçanha takes office after his death.

1910 - Marshal Hermes Rodrigues da Fonseca is elected. "Indian" Protection Service is established.

1914 - Wenceslau Brás Pereira Gomes becomes President.

1918 - Francisco de Paula Rodrigues Alves is elected but dies before taking office. Vice-President Delfim Moreira da Costa Ribeiro succeeds the former president.

1919 - Epitácio da Silva Pessoa is elected the new President.

1922 - Arthur da Silva Bernardes takes office.

1926 - Washington Luís Pereira de Souza succeeds Arthur Bernardes.

1930 - A military revolution deposes Washington Luís and takes Getúlio Vargas to power.

1945 - Getúlio Vargas is deposed. Minister José Linhares takes office.

1946 - General Eurico Gaspar Dutra is elected and takes office.

1951 - Getúlio Dorneles Vargas is president again.

1954 - Getúlio Dorneles Vargas commits suicide. Vice-President João Café Filho takes office.

1955 - João Café Filho's health does not allow him to continue. He is substituted by Carlos Luz until Vice-President Nereu de Oliveira Ramos takes office.

1956 - Juscelino Kubitscheck takes office.

1961 - Jânio da Silva Quadros succeeds JK, but resigns less than 7 months in power. Vice-President João Belchior Marques Goulart takes office.

1964 - João Belchior Marques Goulart is deposed. Pascoal Ranieri Mazzili takes office temporarily. Marshal Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco is elected by the Congress and takes office.

1967 - Marshal Arthur da Costa e Silva is elected by the Congress.

1969 - Military ministers take office after President Costa e Silva is declared ill (Augusto Rademacker, Márcio de Souza Mello and Aurélio Lyra Tavares). General Emílio Garrastazu Médici, elected by the Congress, takes office.

1974 - General Ernesto Geisel is the new president elected by the Congress.

1979 - Another president elected by the Congress takes office: João Baptista de Oliveira Figueiredo.

1985 - Tancredo Neves is elected president but is taken to hospital one day before taking office. Although elected by the Congress, he is acclaimed by the population. Vice-President José Sarney becomes president after Tancredo's death five weeks later.

1989 - A new president is elected by the people for the first time after a period of almost 30 years: Fernando Collor de Melo.

1990 - President Collor takes office. The economic situation of Brazil gets worse.

1992 - Brazilians revolt against Collor and launch a movement for his impeachment. The House of Deputies vote for the impeachment. Two hours later Collor resigns. Vice-President Itamar Franco takes office.

1995 - Fernando Henrique Cardoso, finance minister responsible for President Franco's economic plan, takes office. He issues a new currency in Brazil: real.

1998 - Fernando Henrique Cardoso is re-elected.

2000 - Brazil celebrates 500 years of its discovery on April 22.

2002 - Brazilian people vote to elect the new president. Luís Inácio Lula da Silva wins the elections.

2006 - President Luís Inácio Lula da Silva is re-elected.


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This page was created on: January 24, 2002.
Last updated on: March 5, 2003.

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